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Klosterneuburg

Klosterneuburg German pronunciation: (frequently abbreviated as "Kloburg" by locals) is a town in Tulln District in the Austrian state of Lower Austria. It has a population of about 26,000. The Klosterneuburg Monastery, which was established in 1114 and soon after given to the Augustinians, is of particular historical importance.
At the site of a former pioneer school of the Austrian Bundesheer, Klosterneuburg has various military buildings and former stores which will be developed into a 12 hectare large new quarter of the town by 2030. It is also the centre of a wine growing area, with several esteemed vintners, numerous Heuriger taverns, and the Federal Institute for Viticulture and Pomology, where Fritz Zweigelt bred the Zweigelt and Blauburger red wine grapes.
Archaeological findings denote a settlement of the area already during the Neolithic period. In the Roman era (1st to 5th centuries), a fort of the Danubian limes stood at the site of Klosterneuburg on the northwestern border of the Pannonia. After Charlemagne had defeated the Avars, a Carolingian settlement in the newly established Avar March recorded as Omundesdorf may correspond to the site of the town. Klosterneuburg itself was first mentioned as Nivvenburc (Neuburg, "New Castle") in an 1108 deed.
In 1113 it became the residence of the Babenberg margrave Leopold III, the later patron saint of Austria. In 1114 Leopold, son-in-law of the Salian emperor Henry IV by his marriage with Agnes of Wailingen, had a princely castle erected together with a collegiate church on a hill rising directly from the banks of the Danube, which he transferred to Augustinian canons in 1133. This order is one of the oldest and richest of its kind in Austria; it owned much of the land upon which today the north-western suburbs of Vienna stand. Later, Duke Leopold VI of Austria (d. 1230) also had his residence there during parts of his reign. It was also here where Leopold VI's eldest son climbed a tree, fell and died. The monastery complex include the old chapel of 1318, with Leopold's tomb and the Verdun Altar, dating from the 12th century, the treasury and relic-chamber, the library with 30,000 volumes and numerous manuscripts, the picture gallery, the collection of coins, the theological hall, and the winecellar, containing an immense tun like that at Heidelberg.
The market on the left river bank quickly developed in conjunction with the famous monastery on the right bank. While the Danube was an important waterway trade route, it also repeatedly affected the citizens by floods. In the late 13th century, the two parts of the town, Klosterneuburg (the monastery) and Korneuburg (the market), had grown apart, whereafter the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany granted separate town privileges to Klosterneuburg in 1298.
The town was devastated by Ottoman forces both in the 1529 Siege of Vienna and the 1683 Battle of Vienna. In the 18th century Emperor Charles VI, who could not prevail in the War of the Spanish Succession, set up plans to rebuild the Klosterneuburg monastery complex modelled on the Escorial. The construction of the Baroque buildings began in 1730; however, it did not survive an initial phase.
After the Austrian defeat in the 1805 Battle of Austerlitz, the town was occupied by Napoleonic troops until 1809. A winemaker's town during the 19th century, Klosterneuburg developed to a recreational and residential area of Austrian officials working in the nearby capital. During the Anschluss of Austria to Nazi Germany from 1938, Klosterneuburg was incorporated as the 26th district of "Greater Vienna", which was reversed with the establishment of Wien-Umgebung District in 1954.

 
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